The Arctic is thawing, this fact is concerned environmentalists and not so environmentalist is still seen by a number of countries as a great opportunity to take advantage of the natural resources such as oil and gas which in the future will be more accessible, according to a geological survey carried out by the United States a quarter of energy sources discovered are not found in the Arctic In addition to new sea routes these countries are Russia, Canada, United States, Norway and Denmark (Greenland). According to article 76 of the Convention of the sea, a State can claim an exclusive zone of 200 nautical miles and 159 additional miles of rights over the seabed, measuring from where it ends the continental shelf. At the moment has been discovered that there is no continental shelf that extends up to the North Pole and therefore are considered international waters managed by the international sea bed Authority based in Jamaica. Russia has already moved tab, it launched a expedition to prove that the underwater Lomonosov mountain range is the geological extension of the Russian territory, but both Canada with Denmark not agree and support the idea that it is a continuation of its continental masses. Russia also has a dispute with Norway, the two claim the Barents Sea for his country, at the same time Denmark is disputed Hans Island with Canada, an island of 1.3 Km2 in the Northwest Passage, step that the Government of the Canada considers as part of its waters but United States considered them international waters.
At the same time Canada claimed the Strait of Anian. United States do not recognize the claims of Russia and also ratified the Convention of United Nations on maritime law and Russia does not want to ratify the Treaty of the Bering Sea that made the Soviet Union and the United States in 1990 claiming that this had removed 50,000 km2 to Russia and that it would be harmful for Russian fishermen fishing. Canada for its part built two military bases to consolidate its sovereignty in the region, a sovereignty that are willing to fight the other Nations, also Canada plans to have eight patrol vessels which will protect routes linking the Pacific and the Atlantic on the North. While the United States plan to build two large ships. There are other ways of dividing the North Pole, one is the method of the midline, which would divide the waters of the Arctic, according to the nearest shore line, this method would give the pole to Denmark and would be beneficial to Canada. The other method is the method of the sector, would be taken as the center pole and lines would be established at all wavelengths, where Norway and Russia would gain.